SpringBoot 整合 Quartz 实现分布式调度

在上篇文章中,我们详细的介绍了 Quartz 的架构原理与单体应用,今天我们一起来分享一下 quart 的分布式调度和实践

一、摘要

阅读完本文大概需要 10 分钟,本文主要分享内容如下:

  • springboot + quartz + mysql 实现持久化分布式调度
  • 集群环境任务调度测试

二、Quartz 集群架构

Quartz 是 Java 领域最著名的开源任务调度工具。

在上篇文章中,我们详细的介绍了 Quartz 的单体应用实践,如果只在单体环境中应用,Quartz 未必是最好的选择,例如Spring Scheduled一样也可以实现任务调度,并且与SpringBoot无缝集成,支持注解配置,非常简单,但是它有个缺点就是在集群环境下,会导致任务被重复调度!

而与之对应的 Quartz 提供了极为广用的特性,如任务持久化、集群部署和分布式调度任务等等,正因如此,基于 Quartz 任务调度功能在系统开发中应用极为广泛!

在集群环境下,Quartz 集群中的每个节点是一个独立的 Quartz 应用,没有负责集中管理的节点,而是通过数据库表来感知另一个应用,利用数据库锁的方式来实现集群环境下进行并发控制,每个任务当前运行的有效节点有且只有一个!

特别需要注意的是:分布式部署时需要保证各个节点的系统时间一致!

下面我们一起来看看具体的应用实践!

三、数据表初始化

数据库表结构官网已经提供,我们可以直接访问Quartz对应的官方网站,找到对应的版本,然后将其下载!

小编我选择的是quartz-2.3.0-distribution.tar.gz,下载完成之后将其解压,在文件中搜索sql,在里面选择适合当前环境的数据库脚本文件,然后将其初始化到数据库中即可!

例如,我使用的数据库是mysql-5.7,因此我选择的是tables_mysql_innodb.sql脚本,具体内容如下:

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DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_PAUSED_TRIGGER_GRPS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_SCHEDULER_STATE;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_LOCKS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_SIMPLE_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_SIMPROP_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_CRON_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_BLOB_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_TRIGGERS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS QRTZ_CALENDARS;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS(
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
JOB_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
JOB_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
DESCRIPTION VARCHAR(250) NULL,
JOB_CLASS_NAME VARCHAR(250) NOT NULL,
IS_DURABLE VARCHAR(1) NOT NULL,
IS_NONCONCURRENT VARCHAR(1) NOT NULL,
IS_UPDATE_DATA VARCHAR(1) NOT NULL,
REQUESTS_RECOVERY VARCHAR(1) NOT NULL,
JOB_DATA BLOB NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,JOB_NAME,JOB_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_TRIGGERS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
JOB_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
JOB_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
DESCRIPTION VARCHAR(250) NULL,
NEXT_FIRE_TIME BIGINT(13) NULL,
PREV_FIRE_TIME BIGINT(13) NULL,
PRIORITY INTEGER NULL,
TRIGGER_STATE VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_TYPE VARCHAR(8) NOT NULL,
START_TIME BIGINT(13) NOT NULL,
END_TIME BIGINT(13) NULL,
CALENDAR_NAME VARCHAR(190) NULL,
MISFIRE_INSTR SMALLINT(2) NULL,
JOB_DATA BLOB NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP),
FOREIGN KEY (SCHED_NAME,JOB_NAME,JOB_GROUP)
REFERENCES QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_NAME,JOB_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_SIMPLE_TRIGGERS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
REPEAT_COUNT BIGINT(7) NOT NULL,
REPEAT_INTERVAL BIGINT(12) NOT NULL,
TIMES_TRIGGERED BIGINT(10) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP),
FOREIGN KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP)
REFERENCES QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_CRON_TRIGGERS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
CRON_EXPRESSION VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TIME_ZONE_ID VARCHAR(80),
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP),
FOREIGN KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP)
REFERENCES QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_SIMPROP_TRIGGERS
  (
    SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
    TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
    TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
    STR_PROP_1 VARCHAR(512) NULL,
    STR_PROP_2 VARCHAR(512) NULL,
    STR_PROP_3 VARCHAR(512) NULL,
    INT_PROP_1 INT NULL,
    INT_PROP_2 INT NULL,
    LONG_PROP_1 BIGINT NULL,
    LONG_PROP_2 BIGINT NULL,
    DEC_PROP_1 NUMERIC(13,4) NULL,
    DEC_PROP_2 NUMERIC(13,4) NULL,
    BOOL_PROP_1 VARCHAR(1) NULL,
    BOOL_PROP_2 VARCHAR(1) NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP),
    FOREIGN KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP)
    REFERENCES QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_BLOB_TRIGGERS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
BLOB_DATA BLOB NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP),
INDEX (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME, TRIGGER_GROUP),
FOREIGN KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP)
REFERENCES QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_CALENDARS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
CALENDAR_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
CALENDAR BLOB NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,CALENDAR_NAME))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_PAUSED_TRIGGER_GRPS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
ENTRY_ID VARCHAR(95) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
TRIGGER_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
INSTANCE_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
FIRED_TIME BIGINT(13) NOT NULL,
SCHED_TIME BIGINT(13) NOT NULL,
PRIORITY INTEGER NOT NULL,
STATE VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
JOB_NAME VARCHAR(190) NULL,
JOB_GROUP VARCHAR(190) NULL,
IS_NONCONCURRENT VARCHAR(1) NULL,
REQUESTS_RECOVERY VARCHAR(1) NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,ENTRY_ID))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_SCHEDULER_STATE (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
INSTANCE_NAME VARCHAR(190) NOT NULL,
LAST_CHECKIN_TIME BIGINT(13) NOT NULL,
CHECKIN_INTERVAL BIGINT(13) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,INSTANCE_NAME))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE QRTZ_LOCKS (
SCHED_NAME VARCHAR(120) NOT NULL,
LOCK_NAME VARCHAR(40) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (SCHED_NAME,LOCK_NAME))
ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_J_REQ_RECOVERY ON QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS(SCHED_NAME,REQUESTS_RECOVERY);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_J_GRP ON QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_GROUP);

CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_J ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_NAME,JOB_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_JG ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_C ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,CALENDAR_NAME);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_G ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_STATE ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_STATE);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_N_STATE ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP,TRIGGER_STATE);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_N_G_STATE ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP,TRIGGER_STATE);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_NEXT_FIRE_TIME ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,NEXT_FIRE_TIME);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_NFT_ST ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_STATE,NEXT_FIRE_TIME);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_NFT_MISFIRE ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,MISFIRE_INSTR,NEXT_FIRE_TIME);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_NFT_ST_MISFIRE ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,MISFIRE_INSTR,NEXT_FIRE_TIME,TRIGGER_STATE);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_T_NFT_ST_MISFIRE_GRP ON QRTZ_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,MISFIRE_INSTR,NEXT_FIRE_TIME,TRIGGER_GROUP,TRIGGER_STATE);

CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_TRIG_INST_NAME ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,INSTANCE_NAME);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_INST_JOB_REQ_RCVRY ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,INSTANCE_NAME,REQUESTS_RECOVERY);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_J_G ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_NAME,JOB_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_JG ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,JOB_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_T_G ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP);
CREATE INDEX IDX_QRTZ_FT_TG ON QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS(SCHED_NAME,TRIGGER_GROUP);

commit;

具体表描述如下:

表名 描述
QRTZ_BLOG_TRIGGERS Trigger作为Blob类型存储
QRTZ_CALENDARS 存储Quartz的Calendar信息
QRTZ_CRON_TRIGGERS 存储CronTrigger,包括Cron表达式和时区信息
QRTZ_FIRED_TRIGGERS 存储与已触发的Trigger相关的状态信息,以及相联Job的执行信息
QRTZ_JOB_DETAILS 存储每一个已配置的Job的详细信息
QRTZ_LOCKS 存储程序的悲观锁的信息
QRTZ_PAUSED_TRIGGER_GRPS 存储已暂停的Trigger组的信息
QRTZ_SCHEDULER_STATE 存储少量的有关Scheduler的状态信息,和别的Scheduler实例
QRTZ_SIMPLE_TRIGGERS 存储简单的Trigger,包括重复次数、间隔、以及已触的次数
QRTZ_SIMPROP_TRIGGERS 存储CalendarIntervalTrigger和DailyTimeIntervalTrigger两种类型的触发器
QRTZ_TRIGGERS 存储已配置的Trigger的信息

其中,QRTZ_LOCKS 就是 Quartz 集群实现同步机制的行锁表!

四、Quartz 集群实践

4.1、创建springboot项目,导入maven依赖包

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<!--引入boot父类-->
<parent>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
    <version>2.1.0.RELEASE</version>
</parent>

<!--引入相关包-->
<dependencies>
    <!--spring boot核心-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!--spring boot 测试-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <!--springmvc web-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!--开发环境调试-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
        <optional>true</optional>
    </dependency>
    <!--jpa 支持-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!--mysql 数据源-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>mysql</groupId>
        <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!--druid 数据连接池-->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
        <artifactId>druid-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.17</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-quartz</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <!--Alibaba Json处理包 -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
        <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
        <version>1.2.46</version>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

4.2、创建 application.properties 配置文件

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spring.application.name=springboot-quartz-001
server.port=8080

#引入数据源
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://127.0.0.1:3306/test?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=123456
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver

4.3、创建 quartz.properties 配置文件

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#调度配置
#调度器实例名称
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceName=SsmScheduler
#调度器实例编号自动生成
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId=AUTO
#是否在Quartz执行一个job前使用UserTransaction
org.quartz.scheduler.wrapJobExecutionInUserTransaction=false

#线程池配置
#线程池的实现类
org.quartz.threadPool.class=org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool
#线程池中的线程数量
org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount=10
#线程优先级
org.quartz.threadPool.threadPriority=5
#配置是否启动自动加载数据库内的定时任务,默认true
org.quartz.threadPool.threadsInheritContextClassLoaderOfInitializingThread=true
#是否设置为守护线程,设置后任务将不会执行
#org.quartz.threadPool.makeThreadsDaemons=true

#持久化方式配置
#JobDataMaps是否都为String类型
org.quartz.jobStore.useProperties=true
#数据表的前缀,默认QRTZ_
org.quartz.jobStore.tablePrefix=QRTZ_
#最大能忍受的触发超时时间
org.quartz.jobStore.misfireThreshold=60000
#是否以集群方式运行
org.quartz.jobStore.isClustered=true
#调度实例失效的检查时间间隔,单位毫秒
org.quartz.jobStore.clusterCheckinInterval=2000
#数据保存方式为数据库持久化
org.quartz.jobStore.class=org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.JobStoreTX
#数据库代理类,一般org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.StdJDBCDelegate可以满足大部分数据库
org.quartz.jobStore.driverDelegateClass=org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.StdJDBCDelegate
#数据库别名 随便取
org.quartz.jobStore.dataSource=qzDS

#数据库连接池,将其设置为druid
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.connectionProvider.class=com.example.cluster.quartz.config.DruidConnectionProvider
#数据库引擎
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.driver=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
#数据库连接
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.URL=jdbc:mysql://127.0.0.1:3306/test-quartz?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
#数据库用户
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.user=root
#数据库密码
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.password=123456
#允许最大连接
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.maxConnection=5
#验证查询sql,可以不设置
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.validationQuery=select 0 from dual

4.4、注册 Quartz 任务工厂

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@Component
public class QuartzJobFactory extends AdaptableJobFactory {

    @Autowired
    private AutowireCapableBeanFactory capableBeanFactory;

    @Override
    protected Object createJobInstance(TriggerFiredBundle bundle) throws Exception {
        //调用父类的方法
        Object jobInstance = super.createJobInstance(bundle);
        //进行注入
        capableBeanFactory.autowireBean(jobInstance);
        return jobInstance;
    }
}

4.5、注册调度工厂

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@Configuration
public class QuartzConfig {

    @Autowired
    private QuartzJobFactory jobFactory;


    @Bean
    public SchedulerFactoryBean schedulerFactoryBean() throws IOException {
        //获取配置属性
        PropertiesFactoryBean propertiesFactoryBean = new PropertiesFactoryBean();
        propertiesFactoryBean.setLocation(new ClassPathResource("/quartz.properties"));
        //在quartz.properties中的属性被读取并注入后再初始化对象
        propertiesFactoryBean.afterPropertiesSet();
        //创建SchedulerFactoryBean
        SchedulerFactoryBean factory = new SchedulerFactoryBean();
        factory.setQuartzProperties(propertiesFactoryBean.getObject());
        factory.setJobFactory(jobFactory);//支持在JOB实例中注入其他的业务对象
        factory.setApplicationContextSchedulerContextKey("applicationContextKey");
        factory.setWaitForJobsToCompleteOnShutdown(true);//这样当spring关闭时,会等待所有已经启动的quartz job结束后spring才能完全shutdown。
        factory.setOverwriteExistingJobs(false);//是否覆盖己存在的Job
        factory.setStartupDelay(10);//QuartzScheduler 延时启动,应用启动完后 QuartzScheduler 再启动

        return factory;
    }

    /**
     * 通过SchedulerFactoryBean获取Scheduler的实例
     * @return
     * @throws IOException
     * @throws SchedulerException
     */
    @Bean(name = "scheduler")
    public Scheduler scheduler() throws IOException, SchedulerException {
        Scheduler scheduler = schedulerFactoryBean().getScheduler();
        return scheduler;
    }
}

4.6、重新设置 Quartz 数据连接池

默认 Quartz 的数据连接池是 c3p0,由于性能不太稳定,不推荐使用,因此我们将其改成driud数据连接池,配置如下:

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public class DruidConnectionProvider implements ConnectionProvider {

    /**
     * 常量配置,与quartz.properties文件的key保持一致(去掉前缀),同时提供set方法,Quartz框架自动注入值。
     * @return
     * @throws SQLException
     */

    //JDBC驱动
    public String driver;
    //JDBC连接串
    public String URL;
    //数据库用户名
    public String user;
    //数据库用户密码
    public String password;
    //数据库最大连接数
    public int maxConnection;
    //数据库SQL查询每次连接返回执行到连接池,以确保它仍然是有效的。
    public String validationQuery;

    private boolean validateOnCheckout;

    private int idleConnectionValidationSeconds;

    public String maxCachedStatementsPerConnection;

    private String discardIdleConnectionsSeconds;

    public static final int DEFAULT_DB_MAX_CONNECTIONS = 10;

    public static final int DEFAULT_DB_MAX_CACHED_STATEMENTS_PER_CONNECTION = 120;

    //Druid连接池
    private DruidDataSource datasource;

    @Override
    public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException {
        return datasource.getConnection();
    }

    @Override
    public void shutdown() throws SQLException {
        datasource.close();
    }

    @Override
    public void initialize() throws SQLException {
        if (this.URL == null) {
            throw new SQLException("DBPool could not be created: DB URL cannot be null");
        }

        if (this.driver == null) {
            throw new SQLException("DBPool driver could not be created: DB driver class name cannot be null!");
        }

        if (this.maxConnection < 0) {
            throw new SQLException("DBPool maxConnectins could not be created: Max connections must be greater than zero!");
        }

        datasource = new DruidDataSource();
        try{
            datasource.setDriverClassName(this.driver);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            try {
                throw new SchedulerException("Problem setting driver class name on datasource: " + e.getMessage(), e);
            } catch (SchedulerException e1) {
            }
        }

        datasource.setUrl(this.URL);
        datasource.setUsername(this.user);
        datasource.setPassword(this.password);
        datasource.setMaxActive(this.maxConnection);
        datasource.setMinIdle(1);
        datasource.setMaxWait(0);
        datasource.setMaxPoolPreparedStatementPerConnectionSize(DEFAULT_DB_MAX_CONNECTIONS);

        if (this.validationQuery != null) {
            datasource.setValidationQuery(this.validationQuery);
            if(!this.validateOnCheckout)
                datasource.setTestOnReturn(true);
            else
                datasource.setTestOnBorrow(true);
            datasource.setValidationQueryTimeout(this.idleConnectionValidationSeconds);
        }
    }

    public String getDriver() {
        return driver;
    }

    public void setDriver(String driver) {
        this.driver = driver;
    }

    public String getURL() {
        return URL;
    }

    public void setURL(String URL) {
        this.URL = URL;
    }

    public String getUser() {
        return user;
    }

    public void setUser(String user) {
        this.user = user;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }

    public int getMaxConnection() {
        return maxConnection;
    }

    public void setMaxConnection(int maxConnection) {
        this.maxConnection = maxConnection;
    }

    public String getValidationQuery() {
        return validationQuery;
    }

    public void setValidationQuery(String validationQuery) {
        this.validationQuery = validationQuery;
    }

    public boolean isValidateOnCheckout() {
        return validateOnCheckout;
    }

    public void setValidateOnCheckout(boolean validateOnCheckout) {
        this.validateOnCheckout = validateOnCheckout;
    }

    public int getIdleConnectionValidationSeconds() {
        return idleConnectionValidationSeconds;
    }

    public void setIdleConnectionValidationSeconds(int idleConnectionValidationSeconds) {
        this.idleConnectionValidationSeconds = idleConnectionValidationSeconds;
    }

    public DruidDataSource getDatasource() {
        return datasource;
    }

    public void setDatasource(DruidDataSource datasource) {
        this.datasource = datasource;
    }

    public String getDiscardIdleConnectionsSeconds() {
        return discardIdleConnectionsSeconds;
    }

    public void setDiscardIdleConnectionsSeconds(String discardIdleConnectionsSeconds) {
        this.discardIdleConnectionsSeconds = discardIdleConnectionsSeconds;
    }
}

创建完成之后,还需要在quartz.properties配置文件中设置一下即可!

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#数据库连接池,将其设置为druid
org.quartz.dataSource.qzDS.connectionProvider.class=com.example.cluster.quartz.config.DruidConnectionProvider

如果已经配置,请忽略!

4.7、编写 Job 具体任务类

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public class TfCommandJob implements Job {

    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(TfCommandJob.class);

    @Override
    public void execute(JobExecutionContext context) {
        try {
            System.out.println(context.getScheduler().getSchedulerInstanceId() + "--" + new SimpleDateFormat("YYYY-MM-dd HH:mm:ss").format(new Date()));
        } catch (SchedulerException e) {
            log.error("任务执行失败",e);
        }
    }
}

4.8、编写 Quartz 服务层接口

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public interface QuartzJobService {
    /**
     * 添加任务可以传参数
     * @param clazzName
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     * @param cronExp
     * @param param
     */
    void addJob(String clazzName, String jobName, String groupName, String cronExp, Map<String, Object> param);

    /**
     * 暂停任务
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     */
    void pauseJob(String jobName, String groupName);

    /**
     * 恢复任务
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     */
    void resumeJob(String jobName, String groupName);

    /**
     * 立即运行一次定时任务
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     */
    void runOnce(String jobName, String groupName);

    /**
     * 更新任务
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     * @param cronExp
     * @param param
     */
    void updateJob(String jobName, String groupName, String cronExp, Map<String, Object> param);

    /**
     * 删除任务
     * @param jobName
     * @param groupName
     */
    void deleteJob(String jobName, String groupName);

    /**
     * 启动所有任务
     */
    void startAllJobs();

    /**
     * 暂停所有任务
     */
    void pauseAllJobs();

    /**
     * 恢复所有任务
     */
    void resumeAllJobs();

    /**
     * 关闭所有任务
     */
    void shutdownAllJobs();
}

对应的实现类QuartzJobServiceImpl如下:

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@Service
public class QuartzJobServiceImpl implements QuartzJobService {

    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(QuartzJobServiceImpl.class);

    @Autowired
    private Scheduler scheduler;

    @Override
    public void addJob(String clazzName, String jobName, String groupName, String cronExp, Map<String, Object> param) {
        try {
            // 启动调度器,默认初始化的时候已经启动
//            scheduler.start();
            //构建job信息
            Class<? extends Job> jobClass = (Class<? extends Job>) Class.forName(clazzName);
            JobDetail jobDetail = JobBuilder.newJob(jobClass).withIdentity(jobName, groupName).build();
            //表达式调度构建器(即任务执行的时间)
            CronScheduleBuilder scheduleBuilder = CronScheduleBuilder.cronSchedule(cronExp);
            //按新的cronExpression表达式构建一个新的trigger
            CronTrigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.newTrigger().withIdentity(jobName, groupName).withSchedule(scheduleBuilder).build();
            //获得JobDataMap,写入数据
            if (param != null) {
                trigger.getJobDataMap().putAll(param);
            }
            scheduler.scheduleJob(jobDetail, trigger);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("创建任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void pauseJob(String jobName, String groupName) {
        try {
            scheduler.pauseJob(JobKey.jobKey(jobName, groupName));
        } catch (SchedulerException e) {
            log.error("暂停任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void resumeJob(String jobName, String groupName) {
        try {
            scheduler.resumeJob(JobKey.jobKey(jobName, groupName));
        } catch (SchedulerException e) {
            log.error("恢复任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void runOnce(String jobName, String groupName) {
        try {
            scheduler.triggerJob(JobKey.jobKey(jobName, groupName));
        } catch (SchedulerException e) {
            log.error("立即运行一次定时任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void updateJob(String jobName, String groupName, String cronExp, Map<String, Object> param) {
        try {
            TriggerKey triggerKey = TriggerKey.triggerKey(jobName, groupName);
            CronTrigger trigger = (CronTrigger) scheduler.getTrigger(triggerKey);
            if (cronExp != null) {
                // 表达式调度构建器
                CronScheduleBuilder scheduleBuilder = CronScheduleBuilder.cronSchedule(cronExp);
                // 按新的cronExpression表达式重新构建trigger
                trigger = trigger.getTriggerBuilder().withIdentity(triggerKey).withSchedule(scheduleBuilder).build();
            }
            //修改map
            if (param != null) {
                trigger.getJobDataMap().putAll(param);
            }
            // 按新的trigger重新设置job执行
            scheduler.rescheduleJob(triggerKey, trigger);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("更新任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void deleteJob(String jobName, String groupName) {
        try {
            //暂停、移除、删除
            scheduler.pauseTrigger(TriggerKey.triggerKey(jobName, groupName));
            scheduler.unscheduleJob(TriggerKey.triggerKey(jobName, groupName));
            scheduler.deleteJob(JobKey.jobKey(jobName, groupName));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("删除任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void startAllJobs() {
        try {
            scheduler.start();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("开启所有的任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void pauseAllJobs() {
        try {
            scheduler.pauseAll();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("暂停所有任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void resumeAllJobs() {
        try {
            scheduler.resumeAll();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("恢复所有任务失败", e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void shutdownAllJobs() {
        try {

            if (!scheduler.isShutdown()) {
                // 需谨慎操作关闭scheduler容器
                // scheduler生命周期结束,无法再 start() 启动scheduler
                scheduler.shutdown(true);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("关闭所有的任务失败", e);
        }
    }
}

4.9、编写 contoller 服务

  • 先创建一个请求参数实体类
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public class QuartzConfigDTO implements Serializable {


    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    /**
     * 任务名称
     */
    private String jobName;

    /**
     * 任务所属组
     */
    private String groupName;

    /**
     * 任务执行类
     */
    private String jobClass;

    /**
     * 任务调度时间表达式
     */
    private String cronExpression;

    /**
     * 附加参数
     */
    private Map<String, Object> param;


    public String getJobName() {
        return jobName;
    }

    public QuartzConfigDTO setJobName(String jobName) {
        this.jobName = jobName;
        return this;
    }

    public String getGroupName() {
        return groupName;
    }

    public QuartzConfigDTO setGroupName(String groupName) {
        this.groupName = groupName;
        return this;
    }

    public String getJobClass() {
        return jobClass;
    }

    public QuartzConfigDTO setJobClass(String jobClass) {
        this.jobClass = jobClass;
        return this;
    }

    public String getCronExpression() {
        return cronExpression;
    }

    public QuartzConfigDTO setCronExpression(String cronExpression) {
        this.cronExpression = cronExpression;
        return this;
    }

    public Map<String, Object> getParam() {
        return param;
    }

    public QuartzConfigDTO setParam(Map<String, Object> param) {
        this.param = param;
        return this;
    }
}
  • 编写 web 服务接口
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@RestController
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class TestController {

    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(TestController.class);

    @Autowired
    private QuartzJobService quartzJobService;

    /**
     * 添加新任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/addJob")
    public Object addJob(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.addJob(configDTO.getJobClass(), configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName(), configDTO.getCronExpression(), configDTO.getParam());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 暂停任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/pauseJob")
    public Object pauseJob(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.pauseJob(configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 恢复任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/resumeJob")
    public Object resumeJob(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.resumeJob(configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 立即运行一次定时任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/runOnce")
    public Object runOnce(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.runOnce(configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 更新任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/updateJob")
    public Object updateJob(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.updateJob(configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName(), configDTO.getCronExpression(), configDTO.getParam());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 删除任务
     * @param configDTO
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/deleteJob")
    public Object deleteJob(@RequestBody QuartzConfigDTO configDTO) {
        quartzJobService.deleteJob(configDTO.getJobName(), configDTO.getGroupName());
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 启动所有任务
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/startAllJobs")
    public Object startAllJobs() {
        quartzJobService.startAllJobs();
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 暂停所有任务
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/pauseAllJobs")
    public Object pauseAllJobs() {
        quartzJobService.pauseAllJobs();
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 恢复所有任务
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/resumeAllJobs")
    public Object resumeAllJobs() {
        quartzJobService.resumeAllJobs();
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

    /**
     * 关闭所有任务
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping("/shutdownAllJobs")
    public Object shutdownAllJobs() {
        quartzJobService.shutdownAllJobs();
        return HttpStatus.OK;
    }

}

4.10、服务接口测试

运行 SpringBoot 的Application类,启动服务!

  • 创建一个每5秒钟执行一次的定时任务

可以看到服务正常运行!

4.11、注册监听器(选用)

当然,如果你想在 SpringBoot 里面集成 Quartz 的监听器,操作也很简单!

  • 创建任务调度监听器
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@Component
public class SimpleSchedulerListener extends SchedulerListenerSupport {

    @Override
    public void jobScheduled(Trigger trigger) {
        System.out.println("任务被部署时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobUnscheduled(TriggerKey triggerKey) {
        System.out.println("任务被卸载时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void triggerFinalized(Trigger trigger) {
        System.out.println("任务完成了它的使命,光荣退休时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void triggerPaused(TriggerKey triggerKey) {
        System.out.println(triggerKey + "(一个触发器)被暂停时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void triggersPaused(String triggerGroup) {
        System.out.println(triggerGroup + "所在组的全部触发器被停止时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void triggerResumed(TriggerKey triggerKey) {
        System.out.println(triggerKey + "(一个触发器)被恢复时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void triggersResumed(String triggerGroup) {
        System.out.println(triggerGroup + "所在组的全部触发器被回复时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobAdded(JobDetail jobDetail) {
        System.out.println("一个JobDetail被动态添加进来");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobDeleted(JobKey jobKey) {
        System.out.println(jobKey + "被删除时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobPaused(JobKey jobKey) {
        System.out.println(jobKey + "被暂停时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobsPaused(String jobGroup) {
        System.out.println(jobGroup + "(一组任务)被暂停时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobResumed(JobKey jobKey) {
        System.out.println(jobKey + "被恢复时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void jobsResumed(String jobGroup) {
        System.out.println(jobGroup + "(一组任务)被恢复时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerError(String msg, SchedulerException cause) {
        System.out.println("出现异常" + msg + "时被执行");
        cause.printStackTrace();
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerInStandbyMode() {
        System.out.println("scheduler被设为standBy等候模式时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerStarted() {
        System.out.println("scheduler启动时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerStarting() {
        System.out.println("scheduler正在启动时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerShutdown() {
        System.out.println("scheduler关闭时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulerShuttingdown() {
        System.out.println("scheduler正在关闭时被执行");
    }

    @Override
    public void schedulingDataCleared() {
        System.out.println("scheduler中所有数据包括jobs, triggers和calendars都被清空时被执行");
    }
}
  • 创建任务触发监听器
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@Component
public class SimpleTriggerListener extends TriggerListenerSupport {

    /**
     * Trigger监听器的名称
     * @return
     */
    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "mySimpleTriggerListener";
    }

    /**
     * Trigger被激发 它关联的job即将被运行
     * @param trigger
     * @param context
     */
    @Override
    public void triggerFired(Trigger trigger, JobExecutionContext context) {
        System.out.println("myTriggerListener.triggerFired()");
    }

    /**
     * Trigger被激发 它关联的job即将被运行, TriggerListener 给了一个选择去否决 Job 的执行,如果返回TRUE 那么任务job会被终止
     * @param trigger
     * @param context
     * @return
     */
    @Override
    public boolean vetoJobExecution(Trigger trigger, JobExecutionContext context) {
        System.out.println("myTriggerListener.vetoJobExecution()");
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * 当Trigger错过被激发时执行,比如当前时间有很多触发器都需要执行,但是线程池中的有效线程都在工作,
     * 那么有的触发器就有可能超时,错过这一轮的触发。
     * @param trigger
     */
    @Override
    public void triggerMisfired(Trigger trigger) {
        System.out.println("myTriggerListener.triggerMisfired()");
    }

    /**
     * 任务完成时触发
     * @param trigger
     * @param context
     * @param triggerInstructionCode
     */
    @Override
    public void triggerComplete(Trigger trigger, JobExecutionContext context, Trigger.CompletedExecutionInstruction triggerInstructionCode) {
        System.out.println("myTriggerListener.triggerComplete()");
    }
}
  • 创建任务执行监听器
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@Component
public class SimpleJobListener extends JobListenerSupport {


    /**
     * job监听器名称
     * @return
     */
    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "mySimpleJobListener";
    }

    /**
     * 任务被调度前
     * @param context
     */
    @Override
    public void jobToBeExecuted(JobExecutionContext context) {
        System.out.println("simpleJobListener监听器,准备执行:"+context.getJobDetail().getKey());
    }

    /**
     * 任务调度被拒了
     * @param context
     */
    @Override
    public void jobExecutionVetoed(JobExecutionContext context) {
        System.out.println("simpleJobListener监听器,取消执行:"+context.getJobDetail().getKey());
    }

    /**
     * 任务被调度后
     * @param context
     * @param jobException
     */
    @Override
    public void jobWasExecuted(JobExecutionContext context, JobExecutionException jobException) {
        System.out.println("simpleJobListener监听器,执行结束:"+context.getJobDetail().getKey());
    }
}

  • 最后,将监听器注册到Scheduler
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@Autowired
private SimpleSchedulerListener simpleSchedulerListener;

@Autowired
private SimpleJobListener simpleJobListener;

@Autowired
private SimpleTriggerListener simpleTriggerListener;

@Bean(name = "scheduler")
public Scheduler scheduler() throws IOException, SchedulerException {
    Scheduler scheduler = schedulerFactoryBean().getScheduler();
    //全局添加监听器
    //添加SchedulerListener监听器
    scheduler.getListenerManager().addSchedulerListener(simpleSchedulerListener);

    // 添加JobListener, 支持带条件匹配监听器
    scheduler.getListenerManager().addJobListener(simpleJobListener, KeyMatcher.keyEquals(JobKey.jobKey("myJob", "myGroup")));

    // 添加triggerListener,设置全局监听
    scheduler.getListenerManager().addTriggerListener(simpleTriggerListener, EverythingMatcher.allTriggers());
    return scheduler;
}

4.12、采用项目数据源(选用)

在上面的 Quartz 数据源配置中,我们使用了自定义的数据源,目的是和项目中的数据源实现解耦,当然有的同学不想单独建库,想和项目中数据源保持一致,配置也很简单!

  • quartz.properties配置文件中,去掉org.quartz.jobStore.dataSource配置
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#注释掉quartz的数据源配置
#org.quartz.jobStore.dataSource=qzDS
  • QuartzConfig配置类中加入dataSource数据源,并将其注入到quartz
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@Autowired
private DataSource dataSource;

@Bean
public SchedulerFactoryBean schedulerFactoryBean() throws IOException {
    //...

    SchedulerFactoryBean factory = new SchedulerFactoryBean();
    factory.setQuartzProperties(propertiesFactoryBean.getObject());
    //使用数据源,自定义数据源
    factory.setDataSource(dataSource);
    
    //...
    return factory;
}

五、任务调度测试

在实际的部署中,项目都是集群进行部署,因此为了和正式环境一致,我们再新建两个相同的项目来测试一下在集群环境下 quartz 是否可以实现分布式调度,保证任何一个定时任务只有一台机器在运行

理论上,我们只需要将刚刚新建好的项目,重新复制一份,然后修改一下端口号就可以实现本地测试!

因为curd服务只需要一个,因此我们不需要再编写QuartzJobService等增、删、改服务,仅仅保持QuartzConfigDruidConnectionProviderQuartzJobFactoryTfCommandJobquartz.properties类和配置都是相同的就可以了!

  • 依次启动服务quartz-001quartz-002quartz-003,看看效果如何

第一个启动的服务quartz-001会优先加载数据库中已经配置好的定时任务,其他两个服务quartz-002quartz-003都没有主动调度服务

quartz-001

  • 当我们主动关闭quartz-001quartz-002服务主动接收任务调度

quartz-002

  • 当我们主动关闭quartz-002,同样quartz-003服务主动接收任务调度

quartz-003

最终结果,和我们预期效果一致!

六、小结

本文主要围绕springboot + quartz + mysql实现持久化分布式调度进行介绍,所有的代码功能,笔者都亲自测试过,可能内容比较多,鉴于笔者才疏学浅,如果有遗漏的地方,欢迎网友批评指出!

七、参考

1、美团 - Quartz应用与集群原理分析

2、掘金 - 分布式定时任务框架Quartz

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